Gaps in both cognitive and non-cognitive skills between the advantaged and the disadvantaged emerge early and can be traced in part to adverse environments. Further, a growing proportion of children are now raised in underresourced families. Studies show that a proper measure of child adversity is the quality of parenting do not capture the full environment of the child. Traditional measures of family income or parental education, although correlated with the quality of parenting. While addressing the latter would improve the observed gaps, addressing parenting quality directly would show a much larger improvement.
- China REACH
- Developmental Consequences of Early Life Adversity